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Due to the ease of searching for current scientific literature on the internet, we are no longer updating this page. It may still be of use for looking up older materials published before the digital age. To do current searches we recommend using Google Scholar or PubMed.

Bibliography of Current Bee Breeding Topics


Africanized Honeybees: Genetics

For the latest info click here

Analysis of Nuclear Copies of Mitochondrial Sequences in Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Genome
SK Behura - Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2007

Asymmetric introgression of African genes in honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L.) in Central Mexico
FB Kraus, P Franck, R Vandame - Heredity, 2007

Environmental physiology of the invasion of the Americas by Africanized honeybees
JF Harrison, JH Fewell, KE Anderson, GM Loper - Integrative and Comparative Biology, 2006

The flight physiology of reproductives of Africanized, European, and hybrid honeybees (Apis mellifera). Harrison, J. F., Taylor, O. R., Jr., Hall, H. G.- Physiological and Biochemical Zoology, 2005

Genetic structure of honeybee populations from southern Brazil and Uruguay
NM Diniz, AEE Soares, WS Sheppard, MA Del Lama - Genetics and Molecular Biology, 2003

Genotype–environment interactions in honeybee guarding behaviour
GJ Hunt, E Guzmán-Novoa, JL Uribe-Rubio, D Prieto … - Animal Behaviour, 2003

The influence of paternity on virgin queen success in hybrid colonies of European and African
SS Schneider, G Degrandi-Hoffman - Animal Behaviour, 2003

THE INFLUENCE OF HYBRIDIZATION BETWEEN AFRICAN AND EUROPEAN HONEYBEES, APIS MELLIFERA, ON ASYMMETRIES IN WING SIZE AND SHAPE SS Schneider, LJ Leamy, LA Lewis, G DeGrandi- … - Evolution, 2003

Genetic diversity of the honeybee in Africa: microsatellite and mitochondrial data
P Franck, L Garnery, A Loiseau, BP Oldroyd, HR … - Heredity, 2001

Identification of African-Derived Bees in the Americas: A Survey of Methods
WS Sheppard, DR Smith - Annals of the Entomological Society of America , 2000

Selective Breeding of Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Africanized Areas
E Guzmán-Novoa, RE Page - Journal of Economic Entomology, 1999

Nest Defense Behavior in Colonies from Crosses Between Africanized and European Honey Bees Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman et al Journal of Insect Behavior,1998

Number of ovarioles in workers descendent from crossings between Africanized and Italian honeybees, Apis mellifera L.: comparison among backcrosses and ancestors colonies Anais da Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil, 1998

DNA Studies Reveal Processes Involved in the Spread of New World African Honeybees
HG Hall - The Florida Entomologist, 1992

The Biology and Management of Africanized Honey Bees
ML Winston - Annual Review of Entomology, 1992

Parental Analysis of Introgressive Hybridization Between African and European Honeybees Using Nuclear DNA RFLPs
HG Hall - Genetics, 1990

Polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA of european and Africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera)
DR Smith, WM Brown - Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), 1988

Breed M, et al (1989) A correlation between guard behaviour and defensive response in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Animal Behaviour 37 (3) 515-516

Collins A; Rinderer T; Daly H; Harbo J; Pesante D (1989) Alarm pheromone production by two honeybee types. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15 (6); 1747-1755

Collins A, Rinderer T (1986) The defensive behavior of the Africanized bee. American Bee Journal 126 (9):623-627

Collins A; Rinderer T; Harbo J; Bolten A (1982) Colony defense by Africanized and European honey bees. Science 218 : 72-74

Collins A, et al (1994) Correlation between morphology and colony defence in Apis mellifera L. Journal of Apicultural Research 33 (1): 3-10

De Jong D (1996) Africanized honey bees in Brazil, forty years of adaptation and success. Bee World 77 (2): 67-70

Guzman-Nova E; Page R (1993) Backcrossing Africanized honey bee queens to European drones reduces colony defensive behavior. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 86(3): 352-355

Guzman-Nova E, Sanchez A, Page R, Garcia T (1996) Susceptibility of European and Africanized honeybees and their hybrids to Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 27 : 93-103

Hall H G (1992) DNA studies reveal processes involved in the spread of new world African honeybees. Insect Behavioral Ecology 75 (1): 51-59

Hall H G (1992) Suspected African honeybee colonies in Florida tested for identifying DNA markers. Florida Entomologist 75 (2): 257-266

Harbo J, Bolten A, Rinderer T, Collins A, (1981) Development periods for eggs of Africanized and European honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 20 (3) :156-159

Harrison J; Hall H G (1993) African-European honeybee hybrids have low non intermediate metabolic capacities. Nature 363 : 258-259

Hellmich R; Danka R; Collins A; Rinderer (1986) Laying worker production of drones in mixed colonies of Africanized and European honey bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79 : 833-836

Kerr W; Bueno D (1970) Natural crossing between Apis mellifera adansonii and Apis mellifera ligustica. Evolution 24 : 145-155

Moritz R, Southwick E, Harbo J (1987) Genetic analysis of defesive behaviour of honeybee colonies in a field test. Apidologie 18 (1): 27-42

Moritz R; Meusal M (1992) Mitochondrial gene frequencies in Africanized honeybees: Theoretical model and empirical evidence. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 5 :71-81

Smith D (1991) African bees in the Americas: Insights from biogeography and genetics. TREE 6 (1): 17-21

Stort A (1974) Genetic study of aggressiveness of two subspecies of Apis mellifera in Brazil. 1. Some tests to measure aggressiveness. Journal of Apicultural Research 13 (1): 33-38

Stort A (1975) Genetic study of aggressiveness of two subspecies of Apis mellifera in Brazil. 2. Time at which the first sting reached a leather ball. Journal of Apicultural Research 14 (3/4): 171-175

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Artificial (Instrumental) Insemination

For the latest info click here

Comparison studies of instrumentally inseminated and naturally mated honey bee queens and factors affecting their performance
SW Cobey - Apidologie, 2007

Effects of Insemination Quantity on Honey Bee Queen Physiology
FJ Richard, DR Tarpy, CM Grozinger - PLoS ONE, 2007

Effect of mating number on pheromone profiles of inseminated honey bee queens
FJ Richard - The 2005 ESA Annual Meeting and Exhibition, 2005

Functional characterisation of semen in honeybee queen (A.m.ligustica S.) spermatheca and efficiency of the diluted semen technique in instrumental insemination Lodesani, M., Balduzzi, D., Galli, A. , Italian Journal of Animal Science, 2004

Instrumental insemination of Apis mellifera queens with hetero-and conspecific spermatozoa results in different sperm survival
M Phiancharoen, S Wongsiri, N Koeniger, G Koeniger - Apidologie, 2004

Sperm utilization pattern in the honeybee (Apis mellifera)
H Schlüns, G Koeniger, N Koeniger, RFA Moritz - Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 2004

Genetic diversity within honeybee colonies prevents severe infections and promotes colony growth
DR Tarpy - Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 2003

Functional characteristics of semen in the honey bee (A. m. ligustica S.) queen spermatheca and efficiency of the semen mixing technique in instrumental insemination. Lodesani, M., Balduzzi, D., Galli, A.,Sixth European Bee Conference, 2002

Relationship between semen quality and performance of instrumentally inseminated honey bee queens
AM Collins - Apidologie, 2000

Survival of Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Spermatozoa Stored at Above-Freezing Temperatures
AM Collins - Journal of Economic Entomology

Sperm-mediated transformation of the honey bee, Apis mellifera
KO Robinson, HJ Ferguson, S Cobey, H Vaessin, BH … - Insect Molecular Biology, 2000

Migration and dispersal of spermatozoa in spermathecae of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.)
RE Page, RB Kimsey, HH Laidlaw - Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS), 1984

Buys B, Pringle K, Giliomee (1993) Effect of age on artificial insemination of queens of Apis mellifera capensis. African Entomology 1 (2): 270-272

Bolten A, Harbo J, (1982) Numbers of spermatozoa in the spermatheca of the queen honeybee after multiple inseminations with small volumes of semen. Journal of Apicultural Research 21 (1): 7-10

Buys B, (1992) Effect of humidity on artificial insemination of queen honey bees. American Bee Journal 132 (12): 801-802

Buys B, (1993) Effect of worker absence on the results of artificial insemination and survival of queen honey bees. American Bee Journal 133 (2): 133-135

Cale G, (1960) Lloyd Raymond Watson. Father of controlled mating. American Bee Journal 100 (5): 180-181

Camargo C (1975) Biology of the spermatozoon of Apis mellifera. 1. Influence of diluents and ph. Journal of Apicultural Research 14 (3/4): 113-118

Carmago J, (1968) Note on techniques for instrumental insemination of queen honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 7 (3): 157-161

Cobey S, (1983) The development of instrumental insemination. American Bee Journal 123 (2) 108-111

Cobey S, (1983) Instrumental insemination: Current developments and its application today. American Bee Journal 123 (3) 182-185

Cobey S, (1983) Instrumental insemination: the possibility of semen storage. American Bee Journal 123 (5): 389-395

Cobey S, (1995) Instrumental insemination equipment: sophistication and simplification in designs. American Bee Journal 135 (10): 697-701

Collins A (2000) Relationship between semen quality and performace of instrumentally inseminated honey bee queens. Apidologie 31 : 421- 429

Ebadi R, Gary N, (1980) Factors affecting survival, migration of spermatozoa and the onset of oviposition in instrumentally inseminated queen honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 19 (2) : 96-104

Greenleaf M, (1993) Drone production at Hybi-Bees, Inc. American Bee Journal 133 (4): 287-289

Harbo J, (1974) A technique for handling stored semen of honey bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 67 (2): 191-194

Harbo J, (1991) Effect of pupal weight and insemination volume on oviposition of queen bees. BeeScience 1 (3): 155-158

Harbo J, (1976) The effect of insemination on the egg laying behavior of honey bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 69 (6): 1036-1038

Harbo J, (1979) Storage of honeybee spermatozoa at -196 C. Journal of Apicultural Research 18 (1): 57-63

Harbo J, (1985) Instrumental insemination of queen bees- 1985. Part 1. American Bee Journal 125 (3) 197-202

Harbo J, (1985) Instrumental insemination of queen bees- 1985. Part 2. American Bee Journal 125 (4) 282-287

Harbo J, (1986) Oviposition rates of instrumentally inseminated and naturally mated queen honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79 6(1): 112-115

Harbo J, (1987) Using mixed semen in a bee breeding program. American Bee Journal 127 (12): 845-846

Harbo J, (1988) Sperm competition. American Bee Journal 128 (12): 803-804

Harbo J, (1990) Artificial mixing of spermatozoa from honeybees and evidence for sperm competition. Journal of Apicultural Research 29 (3): 151-158

Harbo J, (1999) The value of single drone inseminations in selective breeding of honey bees. in Apiculture for the 21st century. Wicwas Press pp.1-5

Harbo J, Williams J, (1987) Effect of above freezing temperatures on temporary storage of honeybee spermatozoa. Journal of Apicultural Research 26 (1): 53-55

Harbo J, Szabo T, (1984) A comparison of instrumentally inseminated and naturally mated queens. Journal of Apicultural Research 23 (1):31-36

Harris J, Harbo J, (1988) Breeding from worker honey bees. American Bee Journal 128 (12): 804

Kaftanoglu O, Peng Y, (1980) A new syringe for semen storage and instrumental insemination of queen honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 19 (1): 73-76

Kaftanoglu O, Peng Y, (1980) A washing technique for collection of honeybee semen. Journal of Apicultural Research 19 (3): 205-211

Kaftanoglu O, Peng Y, (1982) Effects of insemination on the initiation of oviposition in the queen honeybee. Journal of Apicultural Research 21 (1): 2-6

Kuhnert M, (1991) Demonstrations of new techniques using instrumental insemination. Apiacta 26 :2-7

Kuehnert M, Carrick M, Allan L, (1989) Use of homogenized drone semen in a bee breeding program in Western Australia. Apidologie 20 (5): 371-381

Kuhnert M, Laidlaw H, (1994) Simplified apparatus for instrumental insemination of queen bees with the flexible insemination technique. Apidologie 25 : 144-154

Laidlaw H, (1978) Instrumental insemination of honey bee queens. Dadant and Sons, Hamilton, Illinois

Laidlaw H, (1988) One-piece queen holder for Mackenson-type insemination device. American Bee Journal 128 (4): 281

Locke S, Peng Y, (19930 The effects of drone age, semen storage and contamination on semen quality in the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Physiological Entomology 18 : 144-148

Mackensen O, (1947) Effect of carbon dioxide on initial oviposition of artificially inseminated and virgin queen bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 40 (3):344-349

Mackensen O, (1955) Experiments in the technique of artificial insemination of queen bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 48(4):418-421

Mackensen O, Tucker K, (1970) Instrumental insemination of queen bees. Agric. Handbook, No. 350 28 pr., USDA. Washington

Moritz R, (1983) Homogeneous mixing of honeybee semen by centrifugation. Journal of Apicultural Research 22 (4): 249-255

Moritz R, (1984) The effect of different diluents on insemination success in the honeybee using mixed semen. Journal of Apicultural Research 23 (3): 164-167

Moritz R, Editor (1989) The instrumental insemination of the queen bee. Apimondia, Bucharest , Romania

Nelson D, Laidlaw H, (1988) An evaluation of instrumentally inseminated queens shipped in packages. American Bee Journal 128 (4): 279-280

Page R, Kimsey R, Laidlaw H, (1984) Migration and dispersal of spermatozoa in spermathecae of queen honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) Experientia 40 : 182-184

Poole H, Taber S, (1969) A method of in vitro storage of honeybee semen.American Bee Journal 109 (11): 420-421

Poole H, Taber S, (1970) In vitro preservation of honey bee semen enhanced by storage at 13-15 C. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 63 (6) 1673-1674

Ruttner F, (1976) The instrumental insemination of the queen bee. Apimondia, Bucharest , Romania

Schley P (1988) An important improvement in the insemination technique of queen honey bees. American Bee Journal 128 (4): 282-284

Skowronek W, Kruk C, Loc K, (1995) The insemination of queen honeybees with diluted semen. Apidologie 26 : 487-493

Smith R, Spivak M, Taylor O, Bennett C, Smith M (1993) Maturation of tergal gland alkene profiles in European honey bee queens. Journal of Chemical Ecology 19 (1): 133-142

Taber S, (1961) Successful shipments of honeybee semen. Bee World 42 (70): 173-176

Verma L, (1978) Biology of honeybee spermatozoa. Apidologie 9 (3): 167-174

Verma L, (1983) Effect of deep freezing on survival of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) spermatozoa. American Bee Journal 123 (12); 851-852

Williams J, Harbo J, (1982) Bioassay for diluents of honey bee semen. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 75 : 457-459

Williams J, (1983) Effect of osmotic pressure on insemination success using incubated honey bee semen. American Bee Journal 123 (12): 849-850

Woyke J, (1964) Causes of repeated mating flights by queen honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 3 (1) : 17-23

Woyke J, (1979) Effect of the access of worker honeybees to the queen on the results of instrumental insemination. Journal of Apicultural Research 19 (2): 136-143

Woyke J, (1979) Number of worker bees necessary to attend instrumentally inseminated queens kept in an incubator. Apidologie 10 (2): 149-155

Woyke J, (1983) Dynamics of entry of spermatozoa into the spermatheca of instrumentally inseminated queen honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 22 (3): 150-154

Woyke J, (1989) Correct queen maintenance before and after instrumental insemination, tested in Egypt. Journal of Apicultural Research 28 (4): 187-190

Woyke J, Jasinski Z, (1973) Influence of external conditions on the number of spermatozoa entering the spermatheca of instrumentally inseminated honeybee queens. Journal of Apicultural Research 12 (3): 145-151

Woyke J, Jasinski Z, (1982) Influence of the number of attendant workers on the number of spermatozoa entering the spermatheca of instrumentally inseminated queens kept outdoors in mating nuclei. Journal of Apicultural Research 21 (3): 129-133

Woyke J, Jasinski Z, (1990) Effect of the number of attendant worker bees on the initiation of egg laying by instrumentally inseminated queens kept in small nuclei. Journal of Apicultural Research 29 (2): 101-106

Woyke J (1991) Syringe guide for instrumental insemination apparatus of queen bees. Apidologie 22 : 81-85

Woyke J, Jasinski Z, (1992) Natural mating of instrumentally inseminated queen bees. Apidologie 23 :225-230

Woyke J, et al (1995) Further investigations on natural mating of instrumentally inseminated Apis mellifera queens. Journal of Apicultural Research 34 (2): 105-106

More literature in German

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Bee Genetics and Breeding

For the latest info click here

Adam Br. (1982) Breeding the Honeybee. Northern Bee Books, West Yorkshire

Dews J, Milner E, (1993) Breeding Better Bees: using simple modern methods. British Isle Bee Breeder's Assn.

Goncalves L, Stort A, (1978) Honey bee improvement through behavioral genetics. Annual Review of Entomology 31 :197-213

Harbo J, (1999) The value of single drone inseminations in selective breeding of honey bees. in Apiculture for the 21st century. Wicwas Press pp.1-5

Hoopingarner R, Farrar C (1959) Genetic control of size in queen honey bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 52 (4): 547-548

Kerr W, Laidlaw H (1956) General genetics of bees. Advances in Genetics 8: 109-153

Laidlaw H, Eckert J (1962) Queen Rearing Univ.Calif Press

Laidlaw H(1979) Contemporary Queen Rearing Dadant and Sons, Hamilton IL

Laidlaw H, Page RE (1997) Queen Rearing and Bee Breeding Wicwas Press, Chesire CT

Mesquida J, (1981) Elements of genetics with special reference to the bee. British Isle Bee Breeder's Assn.

Rinderer T, Editor (1986) Bee Genetics and Breeding. Academic Press, Inc. Orlando, FL

Rothenbuhler W (1958) Genetics and breeding of the honey bee. Annual Review of Entomology 3 :161-180

Rothenbuhler W (1980) Necessary links in the chain of honey bee stock improvement. American Bee Journal 120 (3): 223-225

Rothenbuhler W, Kulincevic J, Kerr W, (1968) Bee genetics. Annual Review of Genetics 2 : 413-438

Ruttner F, Editor (1972) Controlled mating and selection of the honey bee. Apimondia, Bucharest , Romania

Ruttner F, (1988) Breeding techniques and selection for breeding of the honeybee. British Isle Bee Breeder's Assn.

Ruttner F, Mackensen O, (1952) The genetics of the honeybee. Bee World 33 (4): 53-79

Schiff N, Sheppard W (1996) Genetic differentiation in the queen breeding population of the western United States. Apidologie 27 : 77-86

Taber S (1987) Breeding Super Bees. A.I. Root Co. Medina OH

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Closed Population Bee Breeding

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Atkinson T, (1991) The avoidance of diploid drones in closed population honeybee breeding.Entomol. exp. appl. 58:185-190

Cobey S, Lawrence T,(1985) Another look at the Page-Laidlaw closed population breeding program.American Bee Journal 125(10):687-690

Cobey S, Lawrence T, (1988) Commercial application and practical use of the Page-Laidlaw Closed population breeding program. American Bee Journal 128(5):341-344

Page R, Laidlaw H, (1982) Closed population honeybee breeding. 1. Population genetics of sex determination. Journal of Apicultural Research 21(1):30-37

Page R, Laidlaw H, (1982) Closed population honeybee breeding.2. Comparative methods of stock maintenance and selective breeding. Journal of Apicultural Research 21:38-44

Page R, Laidlaw H, Erickson E, (1983) Closed population honeybee breeding. 3. The distribution of sex alleles with gyne supersedure.Journal of Apicultural Research 22:184-190

Page R, Laidlaw H, (1985) Closed population honeybee breeding. Bee World 66(2):63-72

Page R, Marks W, (1982) The population genetics of sex determination in honey bees:random mating in closed populations. Heredity 48 (2):263-270

Roberts W, (1974) A standard stock of honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Research 13:113-120

Szabo T, Lefkovitch L, (1987) Fourth generation of closed-population honeybee breeding 1. Comparison of selected and control strains. Journal of Apicultural Research 26(3):170-180

Severson D, Page R, Erickson E,(1986) Closed population breeding in honey bees:A report on its practical application. American Bee Journal 126(2):93-94

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Honeybee Genomics

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Analysis of Nuclear Copies of Mitochondrial Sequences in Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Genome
SK Behura - Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2007

Genome-wide analysis reveals differences in brain gene expression patterns associated with caste and reproductive status in honey bees
CM Grozinger, Y Fan, SE Hoover, ML Winston - Mol Ecol, 2007

RNAi-induced phenotypes suggest a novel role for a chemosensory protein CSP5 in the development of embryonic integument in the honeybee
J Maleszka, S Forêt, R Saint, R Maleszka - Development Genes and Evolution, 2007

Exceptionally High Density of NUMTs in the Honeybee Genome
P Pamilo, L Viljakainen, A Vihavainen - Molecular Biology and Evolution, 2007

A third generation microsatellite-based linkage map of the honey bee and its comparison with the sequence-based physical map
M Solignac, F Mougel, D Vautrin, J Cornuet - Genome Biol, 2007

Non-destructive genotyping and genetic variation of fanning in a honey bee colony
S Su, S Albert, S Zhang, S Maier, S Chen, H Du, et al Journal of Insect Physiology, 2007

A honey bee odorant receptor for the queen substance 9-oxo-2-decenoic acid
KW Wanner, AS Nichols, KKO Walden, A Brockmann, et al- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2007

Variation in genomic recombination rates among animal taxa and the case of social insects
L Wilfert, J Gadau, P Schmid-Hempel - Heredity, 2007

Exceptionally high levels of recombination across the honey bee genome
M Beye,I Gattermeier, M Hasselmann, T Gempe, et al - Genome Research, 2006

Quantitative Comparison of Caste Differences in Honeybee Hemolymph
QWT Chan, CG Howes, LJ Foster - Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, 2006

A deficit of detoxification enzymes: pesticide sensitivity and environmental response in the honeybee
C Claudianos, H Ranson, RM Johnson, S Biswas, et al - Insect Mol Biol, 2006

Genes of the antioxidant system of the honey bee: annotation and phylogeny
M Corona, GE Robinson - Insect Molecular Biology, 2006

Immune pathways and defence mechanisms in honey bees Apis mellifera,: J. D. Evans, K. Aronstein, Y. P. Chen, C. Hetru, J.-L. Imler, H. Jiang, M. Kanost, G. J. Thompson, Z. Zou, D. Hultmark - Insect Molecular Biology, 2006

Pronounced Differences of Recombination Activity at the Sex Determination Locus of the Honeybee, a Locus Under Strong Balancing Selection
M Hasselmann, M Beye - Genetics, 2006

ProtoBee: Hierarchical classification and annotation of the honey bee proteome
N Kaplan, M Linial - Genome Research, 2006

Genome sequences of the honey bee pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascosphaera apis - X. Qin, J. D. Evans, K. A. Aronstein, K. D. Murray, G. M. Weinstock - Insect Molecular Biology, 2006

Sweetness and light: illuminating the honey bee genome - G. E. Robinson, J. D. Evans, R. Maleszka, H. M. Robertson, D. B. Weaver, K. Worley, R. A. Gibbs, G. M. Weinstock - Insect Molecular Biology, 2006

Genome scan for cis-regulatory DNA motifs associated with social behavior in honey bees
S Sinha, X Ling, CW Whitfield, C Zhai, GE Robinson - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006

Towards a molecular definition of worker sterility: differential gene expression and reproductive plasticity in honey bees - G. J. Thompson, R. Kucharski, R. Maleszka, B. P. Oldroyd - Insect Molecular Biology, 2006

Nuclear receptors of the honey bee: annotation and expression in the adult brain - Rodrigo A. Velarde, Gene E. Robinson, Susan E. Fahrbach - Insect Molecular Biology, 2006

Genomic dissection of behavioral maturation in the honey bee
CW Whitfield, Y Ben-Shahar, et al - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2006

The foraging gene, behavioral plasticity, and honeybee division of labor
Y Ben-Shahar - Journal of Comparative Physiology A: Sensory, Neural, et al, 2005

Behavior and the limits of genomic plasticity: power and replicability in the honey bee
AC Cash, CW Whitfield, N Ismail, GE Robinson - Genes, Brain & Behavior, 2005

Microarray and real-time PCR analyses of gene expression in the honeybee brain following caffeine treatment
R Kucharski, R Maleszka - Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 2005

A Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map of the Honeybee, Apis mellifera L.
M Solignac, D Vautrin, E Baudry, F Mougel, et al- Genetics, 2004

The Emergence of Hymenopteran Genetics
RE Page, J Gadau, M Beye - Genetics, 2002

Unusually High Recombination Rate Detected in the Sex Locus Region of the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)
M Beye, GJ Hunt, RE Page, MK Fondrk, L Grohman - Genetics, 1999

Characterization of Honeybee Chromosomes Using Repetitive DNA Probes and Fluorescence in situ Hybridization
M Beye, RFA Moritz - Journal of Heredity, 1995

Hunt G, Page R (1995) Linkage Map of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera, Based on RAPD Markers. Genetics 139: 1371-1382

Hunt G, Page R, Fondrk K, Dullumt C (1995) Major Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Honey Bee Foraging Behavior Genetics 141: 1537-1545

Hunt G, Guzma´n-Novoa E, Fondrk K, Page R (1997) Quantitative Trait Loci for Honey Bee Stinging Behavior and Body Size. Genetics 148: 1203–1213


 

Tracheal Mite Resistance

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CASTE, SEX AND STRAIN OF HONEY BEES (APIS MELLIFERA) AFFECT INFESTATION WITH TRACHEAL MITES (ACARAPIS WOODI) Villa J, Danka R, Experimental and Applied Acarology Volume 37, December 2005 , pp. 157-164

Cobey S (1997) Honey bee tracheal mite resistance: are resistant stocks developing and can they be maintained? American Bee Journal 137 (10): 738-740

 DANKA, R. G., VILLA, J. D. 1996. Comparative susceptibility of Africanized honey bees from south Texas to infestation by Acarapis woodi Southwestern Entomologist 21: 451-456.

Danka R, Villa J (1998) Evidence of autogrooming as a mechanism of honey bee resistance to tracheal mite infestation. Journal of Apicultural Research 37(1): 39-46

Danka R, et al(1995) Field test of resistance to Acarapis woodi and of colony production by four stocks of honey bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 88(3): 584-591

Danka R, Villa J (1996) Influence of resistant honey bee hosts on the life history of the parasite Acarapis woodi. Experimental and Applied Acarology 20(6): 313-322

Danka R, Villa J (2000) Inheritance of resistance to Acarapis woodi in first generation crosses of honey bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 93 (6) : 1602-1605

Gary N, Page R, (1987) Phenotypic variation in susceptibility of honey bees, Apis mellifera. to infestation by tracheal mites, Acarapis woodi. Experimental and Applied Acarology 3: 291-305

Gary N, Page R, (1990) Genotypic variation in susceptibility of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to infestation by tracheal mites (Acarapis woodi). Experimental and Applied Acarology 8:275-283

Gary N, Page R, Lorenzen K, (1989) Effect of age of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) on tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infestation. Experimental and Applied Acarology 7:153-160

Pettis J, Pankiw T (1994) Grooming behavior by the honey bee and tracheal mite dispersal. American Bee Journal 134(12) 834-835

Pettis J, Pankiw T (1998) Grooming behavior by Apis mellifera in the presence of Acarapis woodi. Apidologie 29: 223-235

Smith A, Needham G, Page R, Fondrk K, (1991) Dispersal of the honey bee tracheal mite Acarapis woodi to old winter bees. Bee Science 1 (2) :95-99

Szabo T, Lefkovitch L, Clark K (1991) Comparative resistance of honey bees from a closed population to infestation by tracheal mites. American Bee Journal 131 (10): 643-645

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Varroa Resistance: General

For the latest info click here

Boecking O, Ritter W, (1994) Current status of behavioral tolerance of the honey bee Apis mellifera to the mite Varroa jacobsoni. American Bee Journal 134(10):689-694

Buchler R, (1994)Varroa tolerance in honey bees-occurrence, characters and breeding. Bee World 75(2):54-70

Cobey S, Lawrence T,(1988) Varroa mite: Potential methods of control. American Bee Journal 128(2):112-113

DANKA, R. G., RINDERER, T. E., KUZNETSOV, V. N., DELATTE, G. T. 1995. A USDA-ARS project to evaluate resistance to Varroa jacobsoni by honey bees of Far-Eastern Russia. American Bee Journal 135: 746-748.

DeJong D,(1997) An isolated population of Italian bees that has survived Varroa jacobsoni infestation without treatment for over 12 years. American Bee Journal 137 (10): 742-745

Harbo J, (1993) Evaluating bees for resistance to Varroa mites. American Bee Journal 133(12):865

Kulincevic JM, Rinderer TE, Mladja VJ, Buco SM (1992) Five years of bi-directional genetic selection for honey bees resistant and susceptible to Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie (23):443-452

Moritz R,(1994) Selection for varroatosis resistance in honeybees. Parasitology Today 10(6)236-238

Morse R, Miksa D, Masenheimer J, (1991) Varroa resistance in U.S.honey bees. American Bee Journal 131(7)433-434

Rinderer T et al,(1993) The breeding, importing, testing and general characteristics of Yugoslavian honey bees bred for resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. American Bee Journal 133(3):197-200

RINDERER, T. E., DELATTE, G. T., DE GUZMAN, L. I., WILLIAMS, J. L., STELZER, J. A., KUZNETSOV, V. N. 1999. Evaluations of the Varroa-resistance of honey bees imported from Far-Eastern Russia. American Bee Journal 139: 287-290

 RINDERER, T. E., DE GUZMAN, L. I. 1999. Identification and comparison of Varroa species infesting honey bees. Apidologie 30: 85-95.

Taber S, (1993) Varroa resistance-a summation. American Bee Journal 133 (3):194-195

Woyke J, (1989) Breeding of honey bees resistant to Varroa jacobsoni. American Bee Journal 129 (1):21-23

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Varroa Resistance: Brood Development Time

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Bienefeld K, (1996) Factors affecting duration of the postcapping period in brood of the honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) Journal of Apicultural Research 35 (1): 11-17

Buchler R, Dreschner W,(1990) Variance and heritability of the capped developmental stage in European Apis mellifera L. and its correlation with increased Varroa jacobsoni Oud. infestation. Journal of Apicultural Research 29 (3):172-176

DeGrandi-Hoffman G, Lusby D, Erickson E,(1989) Managing colony genetics by grafting and selecting for queens with shorter development times. American Bee Journal 129 (11):717-719

Harbo J (1992) Breeding honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) for more rapid development of larvae and pupae. Journal of Economic Entomology 85 (6):2125-2130

Le Conte Y, et al(1994) Heritability of queen brood post-capping stage duration in Apis mellifera mellifera L. Apidologie 25 : 513-519

Moritz R (1985) Heritability of the postcapping stage in Apis mellifera and its relation to varroatosis resistance. The Journal of Heredity 76 : 267-270

Moritz R, Mautz D, (1990) Development of Varroa jacobsoni in colonies of Apis mellifera capensis and Apis mellifera carnica. Apidologie 21 :53-58

Moritz R, Jordan M (1993) Selection of resistance against Varroa jacobsoni across caste and sex in the honeybee. Experimental and Applied Acarology 16 (4): 345-353

Spivak M, et al(1992) Influence of Temperature on rate of development and color patterns of queen honey bees. Environmental Entomology 21(2): 364-370

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Varroa Resistance: Grooming Behavior

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Boecking O, Ritter W (1993) Grooming and removal behavior of Apis mellifera intermissa in Tunisia against Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Apicultural Research 32 : 127

Buchler R, Drescher W, Tournier (1992) Grooming behaviour of Apis cerana, Apis mellifera and Apis dorsata, reacting to Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae. Experimental and Applied Acarology 16 : 313-319

Moore D, et al, (1995) A highly specialized social grooming honey bee. Journal of Insect Behavior 8 (6): 855-861

Moretto G, (1997) Defense of Africanized bee workers against the mite Varroa jacobsoni in southern Brazil. American Bee Journal 137 (10): 746-747

Peng Y, et al(1987)The resistance mechanism of the Asian honeybee Apis cerana Fabr., to an ectoparasitic mite, Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 49 (1): 54-60

Ruttner F, Hanel H,(1992) Active defense against Varroa mites in a Carniolan strain of honeybee. Apidologie 23, 173-187


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Varroa Resistance: Hygienic Behavior (also: AFB,EFB,Chalkbrood)

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Boecking O, Drescher (1991) Response of Apis mellifera colonies infested with Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 22 : 237-241

Boecking O (1992) Removal behavior of Apis mellifera colonies towards sealed brood cells infested with Varroa jacobsoni: techniques extent and efficacy. Apidologie 23 : 127

Boecking O, Drescher (1992) The removal response of Apis mellifera L. colonies to brood in wax and plastic cells after artificial and natural infestation with Varroa jacobsoni Oud. and to freeze-killed brood. Experimental and Applied Acarology 16:321-329

Boecking O, Drescher (1992) Apis mellifera removes Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae from sealed brood cells in the tropics. American Bee Journal 132 : 732-734

Boecking O, Spivak M (1999) Behavioral defenses of honey bees against Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 30 : 141-158

Boecking O (1999) Sealing up and non-removal of diseased and Varroa jacobsoni infested drone brood cells is part of the hygienic behavior in Apis cerana. Journal of Apicultural Research 38 : 159-168

Gilliam M, Taber S, Richardson G, (1983) Hygienic behavior of honey bees in relation to chalkbrood disease. Apidologie 14 (1): 29-39

Gramacho K, et al (1999) Influence of body fluid from pin killed honey bee pupae on hygienic behavior. Apidologie 30 : 367-374

Jones R, Rothenbuhler W, (1964) Behaviour genetics of nest cleaning in honeybees. II. Responses of two inbred lines to various amounts of cyanide killed brood. Animal Behaviour 12 (4) : 584-587

Milne C, (1982) Honey bee hygienic behavior and resistance to chalkbrood. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 76 : 384-387

Milne C, (1983) Laboratory measurement of honeybee brood disease resistance. 1. Uncapping and removal of freeze killed and live brood by newly emerged workers in laboratory test cages. Journal of Apicultural Research 21 (2) : 111-114

Milne C, (1983) Laboratory measurement of honeybee brood disease resistance. 2. Uncapping of freeze killed and live brood by newly emerged workers in cages. Journal of Apicultural Research 22 (2) : 115-118

Milne C, (1985) Estimates of the heritabilities of and genetic correlation between two components of honey bee hygienic behavior: uncapping and removing. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 78 : 841-844

Moritz R, (1988) A reevaluation of the two-locus model for hygienic behavior in honeybees. Journal of Heredity 79 : 257-262

Newton D, Cantwell G, Bourquin, E, (1975) Removal of freeze-killed brood as an index of nest cleaning behavior in honeybee colonies. American Bee Journal 115 (10) : 388

Newton D, Norman J, Ostasiewski J, (1986) A simplified bioassay for behavioral resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees. American Bee Journal 126 (4) : 278-281

Momot J, Rothenbuhler W, (1971) Behaviour genetics of nest cleaning in honeybees. VI. Interactions of age and genotype of bees, and nectar flow. Journal of Apicultural Research 10 (1) : 11-21

Rothenbuhler W (1964) Behavior genetics of nest cleaning in honey bees. I. Responses of four inbred lines to disease killed brood. Animal Behaviour 12 :578-583

Rothenbuhler W (1964) Behavior genetics of nest cleaning in honey bees. IV. Responses to F1 and backcross generations to disease-killed brood. American Zoologist (4):111-123

Rothenbuhler W , Thompson V (1957) Resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees. Journal of Economic Entomology 49 (4): 470-475

Spivak M, Honey bee hygienic behavior and defense against Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 27 : 245-260

Spivak M, Gilliam M, (1993) Facultative expression of hygienic behaviour of honey bees in relation to disease resistance. Journal of Apicultural Research 32(3/4): 147-157

Spivak M, Reuter G, Lamb M, (1995) Frequency of hygienic behavior in naturally mated daughters of a hygienic breeder queen. American Bee Journal 135 (12): 830

Spivak M, Gillam M (1998) Hygienic behaviour of honey bees and its application for control of brood diseases and varroa. Part 1. Bee World 79(3): 124-134

Spivak M, Gillam M (1998) Hygienic behaviour of honey bees and its application for control of brood diseases and varroa. Part 2. Bee World 79(4): 169-186

Szabo T, (1995) Selective breeding of honey bees for resistance to Varroa jacobsoni in Ontario. American Bee Journal 135 (12): 831

Taber S, (1982) Breeding for disease resistance. American Bee Journal 122(3):177-179

Taber S, (1982) Determining resistance to brood disease. American Bee Journal 122(6):422-425

Thompson V, (1964) Behaviour genetics of nest cleaning in honeybees. III. Effect of age of bees of a resistant line on their response to disease killed brood. Journal of Apicultural Research 3 (1): 25-30

Thompson V, Rothenbuhler W (1957) Resistance to American foulbrood in honey bees.II. Differential protection of larvae by adults of different genetic lines. Journal of Economic Entomology 50 : 731-737

Trump R, Thompson V, Rothenbuhler W, (1967) Behaviour genetics of nest cleaning in honeybees. V. Effect of previous experience and composition of mixed colonies on response to disease killed brood. Journal of Apicultural Research 6 (3): 127-131

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Varroa Sensitive Hygiene VSH aka SMR

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>Danka, Robert G. Harris, Jeffrey W. Villa, Jose D. (2010) Hygienic responses to Varroa destructor by commercial and feral honey bees from the Big Island of Hawaii before exposure to mites.

Harris, Jeffrey W. Danka, Robert G. Villa, Jose D. (2010) Honey Bees with the Trait of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene Remove Brood with All Reproductive Stages of Varroa Mites

Rinderer, Thomas E. Harris, Jeffrey W. Hunt, Gregory J. de Guzman, Lilia I. (2010) Breeding for resistance to Varroa destructor in North America.

Villa J, Danka R, Harris J (2009) Simplified methods of evaluating colonies for levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

Danka R, Harris J (2009) Status of bees with the trait of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) for varroa resistance

Harbo J, Harris J (2009) Responses to Varroa by honey bees with different levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

Ward K, Danka R, Ward R (2008) Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honeybees in Alabama Beekeeping Operations

Harris J ( 2008) Effects of brood type on Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) by worker honey bees

Villa J, Danka R, Harris J (2009) Simplified methods of evaluating colonies for levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH)

Danka R, Harris J (2009) Status of bees with the trait of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) for varroa resistance

Ward K, Danka R, Ward R (2008) Comparative Performance of Two Mite-Resistant Stocks of Honeybees in Al Beekeeping Operations

Harbo J, Harris J (2008) Responses to Varroa by honey bees with different levels of Varroa Sensitive Hygiene

Harris J ( 2008) Effects of brood type on Varroa-sensitive hygiene (VSH) by worker honey bees

Harris, J.W., Harbo, J.R. 2006 VSH BEES DISPROPORTIONATELY REMOVE VARROA-INFESTED HOSTS FROM THE YOUNGEST AGE COHORTS OF PUPAE

Harbo J, Harris J (2005) The Number of Genes Involved in the Smr Trait

Harbo J, Harris J (2005) Suppressed Mite Reproduction Explained by the Behavior of Adult Bees. Journal of Apicultural Research 44 : 21-23

Harris, J.W., Harbo, J.R. 2005. The SMR Trait Explained by Hygienic Behavior of Adult Bees. American Bee Journal 145(5):430-431

Ibrahim, A. and Spivak, M. The Relationship of Between Suppression of Mite Reproduction (SMR) and Hygienic Behavior, American Bee Journal, May 2004

Harris J, Harbo J (2004) Selective breeding for honey bees with a low percentage of Varroa mites in capped brood. American Bee Journal 144: 405

Harbo J, Harris J (2003) An Evaluation of Commercially produced Queens that have the SMR Trait. American Bee Journal, March 2003

Harbo J, Harris J (2002) SMR Queens : an Update. Bee Culture May 2002

Harris J, Harbo J (2001) Natural and Suppressed Reproduction of Varroa. Bee Culture May 2001 129 : 34-38

Harbo J, Harris J (2001) Resistance to Varroa destructor when mite-resistant queen honey bees were free-mated with unselected drones. Journal of Economic Entomology 94: 1319-1323

Harbo J, Harris J (2001) Suppression of mite reproduction: a characteristic of honey bees that produces resistance to Varroa destructor. American Bee Journal December 2001

Harris J, Harbo J (2000) Changes in reproduction of Varroa destructor after honey bee queens were exchanged between resistant and susceptible colonies. Apidologie 31: 689-699

Harbo, J.R., Harris, J.W. 2000. Using Free-mated Queens to Introduce Genes for Varroa Resistance into a Population of Honey Bees. American Bee Journal. 140(11):904-905.

Harbo J, Harris J (1999) Heritability in honey bees of characteristics associated with resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Economic Entomology 92 (2) : 261-265

Harris J, Harbo J (1999) Low sperm counts and reduced fecundity of mites in colonies of honey bees resistant to Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Economic Entomology 92(1) :83-90

Harbo J, Harris J (1999) Selecting honey bees for resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 30 :183-196

Harbo J, Harris J (1999) Resistance to Varroa destructor when mite-resistant queen honey bees were free mated with unselected drones.

Harbo J, Harris J (1998) Selecting honey bees for suppression of the reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni. American Bee Journal 138 : 295-296

Harbo J, Hoopingarner R (1997) Honey bees in the United States that express resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Economic Entomology 90 : 893-898

Camazine S (1986) Differential reproduction of the mite, Varroa jacobsoni, on Africanized and European honey bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79 : 801-803


Varroa Biology

For the latest info click here

Anderson D, (1994) Non- reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni in Apis mellifera colonies in Papua New Guinia and Indonesia. Apidologie 25 : 412-421

Anderson D, (2000) Variation in the parasitic bee mite Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 31 : 281-292

Anderson D, Fuchs S, (1998) Two genetically distinct populations of Varroa jacobsoni with contrasting reproductive abilities of Apis mellifera. Journal of Apicultural Research 37 : 69-78

Boot W, et al (1994) Factors affecting invasion of Varroa jacobsoni into honeybee, Apis mellifera, brood cells. Bulletin of Entomological Research 84 : 3-10

Boot W, Calis J, Beetsma J, (1995) Does time spent on adult bees affect reproductive success of Varroa mites? Entomolgia Experimentalis et Applicata 75 : 1-7

Boot W, et al (1995) Why do Varroa mites invade worker brood cells of the honey bee despite lower reproductive success? Behavior, Ecology, and Sociobiology 36 : 283-289

Boot W, et al (1997) Reproductive success of Varroa jacobsoni in brood of its original host, Apis cerana, in comparison to that of its new host, A. mellifera Bulletin of Entomological Research 87 : 119-126

Boot W, et al (1999) Natural selection of Varroa jacobsoni explains the different reproductive strategies in colonies of Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Experimental & Applied Acarology 23 : 133-144

Beetsma J, Zonneveld K (1992) Observations on the initiation and stimulation of oviposition of the Varroa mite. Experimental and Applied Acarology 16 : 303-312

Camazine S (1986) Differential reproduction of the mite, Varroa jacobsoni, on Africanized and European honey bees. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 79 : 801-803

 DE GUZMAN, L. I., RINDERER, T. E., STELZER, J. A. 1999. Occurrence of two genotypes of Varroa jacobsoni Oud. in North America. Apidologie 30: 31-36.

Donze G, Guerin P (1994) Behavioral attributes and parental care of Varroa mites parasitizing honeybee brood. Behavior, Ecology, and Sociobiology34 : 305-319

Donze G, Guerin P (1997) Time- Activity budgets and space by the different life stages of Varroa jacobsoni in capped brood of the honey bee Apis, mellifera. Journal of Insect Behavior 10 : 371-392

Donze G et al (1996) Effect of mating frequency and brood cell infestation rate on the reproductive success of the honeybee parasite Varroa jacobsoni. Ecological Entomology 21 : 17-26

Eguaras M, et al, (1994) Seasonal changes in Varroa jacobsoni reproduction in temerate climates of Argentina. Bee Science 3 : 120- 123

Eguaras M, et al (1995) Mortality and reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni in resistant colonies of honey bees in Argentina. Bee Science 3 (4): 174-178

Fries I, Camazine S, Sneyd J (1994) Population dynamics of Varroa jacobsoni: a model and review. Bee World 75 : 5-28

Fuchs S, (1994) Non- reproducing Varroa jacobsoni in honey bee worker cells- status of mites or effect of brood cells? Experimental and Applied Acarology 18 : 309-317

Fuchs S, Langenbach K (1989) Multiple infestation of Apis mellifera brood cells and reproduction in Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 20 : 257-266

Guzman- Novoa E, Vandame R, Arechavaleta M (1999) Susceptibility of European and Africanized honey bees to Varroa jacobsoni in Mexico. Apidologie 30 : 173-182

Guzman L, Rinderer T, Lancaster V, (1995) A short test evaluating larval attractiveness of honey bees to Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Apicultural Research 34 (2): 89-92

Guzman L, Rinderer T, Delatte G, Macchiavell R, (1996) Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans tolerance in selected stocks of Apis mellifera L. Apidologie 27 : 193-210

Hanel H, (1983) The effect of juvenile hormone on the reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 14 (2): 137-142

Harbo J (1996) Evaluating colonies of honey bees for resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. BeeScience 4 : 100-105

Harbo J et al (2003) Variable popluation growth of varroa destructor in colonies of honey bees during a 10 year period. Environmental Entomology/population Ecology 32(6):1305-1312.

Harbo J, Hoopingarner R, Harris J (1997) Evaluating honey bees for resistance to varroa mites: procedures and results. American Bee Journal 137 : 223-224

Harbo , Hoopingarner R (1997) Honey bees in the United States that express resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Jo Journal of Economic Entomology 90 : 893-898

Harbo J, Harris J (1998) Selecting honey bees for suppression of the reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni. American Bee Journal 138 : 295-296

Harbo J, Harris J (1999) Selecting honey bees for resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 30 :183-196

Harbo J, Harris J (1999) Heritability in honey bees of characteristics associated with resistance to Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Economic Entomology 92 (2) : 261-265

Harris J, Harbo J (1999) Low sperm counts and reduced fecundity of mites in colonies of honey bees resistant to Varroa jacobsoni. Journal of Economic Entomology 92(1) :83-90

Harris J, Harbo J (2000) Changes in reproduction of Varroa destructor after honey bee queens were exchanged between resistant and susceptible colonies. Apidologie 31 689-699

Ifantidis M, (1983) Ontogenesis of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in worker and drone honeybee brood cells. Journal of Apicultural Research 22 : 200-206

Ifantidis M, (1984) Parameters of the population dynamics of the Varroa mite on honeybees. Journal of Apicultural Reserch 23 (4) : 227-233

Martin S (1994) Ontogenesis of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in worker brood of the honeybee Apis mellifera under natural conditions. Experimental and Applied Acarology 18 : 87-100

Martin S (1995) Reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni in cells of Apis mellifera containing one or more mother mites and the distribution of these cells. Journal of Apicultural Research 34 : 187- 196

Martin S, Kemp D, (1997) Average number of reproductive cycles performed by Varroa jacobsoni in honey bee colonies. Journal of Apicultural Research 36 : 113-123

Medina L, Martin S (1999) A comparative study of Varroa jacobsoni reproduction in worker cells of honey bees in England and Africanized bess in Yucatan, Mexico. Experimental and Applied Acarology 23 : 659-667

Message D, Goncalves L, (1995) Effect of the size of worker brood cells of Africanized honey bees on infestation and reproduction of the ectoparasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni. Apidologie 26 : 381-386

Morotto G, Goncalves L, De Jong D (1997) Relationship between food availability and the reproductive ability of the mite Varroa jacobsoni in Africanized bee colonies. American Bee Journal 137 : 67-69

Oldroyd B (1999) Coevolution while you wait: Varroa jacobsoni, a new parasite of western honeybees. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14 (8) : 312-315

Rosenkranz P (1999) Honey bee tolerance to Varroa jacobsoni in South America. Apidologie 30 : 159-171

Rosenkranz P, Engels W (1994) Infertility of Varroa jacobsoni females after invasion into Apis mellifera worker brood as a tolerance factor against varroatosis. Apidologie 25:402-411

Ruijter A, (1987) Reproduction of Varroa jacobsoni during successive brood cycles of the honeybee. Apidologie 18 : 321-326

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